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The history of science in Argentina describes the fate of researchers and scientific institutions of the country, often exposed to the elements of its economy and its politics, but able, nevertheless, to produce enduring works and useful to know and technology. The times of the governments of Bernardino Rivadavia and Domingo Faustino Sarmiento , or the generation of 1880 , or the luminous years 1956 to 1966 were the times of its greatest splendor. Many scientists who contributed to science in Argentina reached international renown, including three Nobel laureates , and in turn several world-renowned foreign researchers settled in the country throughout its history. They were able to drive the creation of institutions in the country known worldwide for its accomplishments.

Governments without breadth of ideas and economic crises were the main conspirators for well-trained scientists in Argentina were forced to migrate to countries with a more promising horizon and greater freedom of expression.

Mario Bunge , physicist, philosopher and epistemologist Argentinean based in Canada , among other distinctions received the Prince of Asturias Award (1982), wrote in 2001 , referring to the scientific policy of the country in recent decades and the teachings that let Enrique Gaviola , first internationally renowned Argentine astrophysicist, and Bernardo Houssay , the first Nobel Prize in science Argentina:

    The Houssay and Gaviola contribution to the design of a science policy was decisive for all researchers of my generation. We all understood that a) there is no national development without scientific development and b) it requires investment not only in installations, but also, and especially, students and researchers in full time (in Argentina was luxury usually reserved for people with their own resources ).

    However, at the turn of the years I realized that these principles, while necessary, are insufficient: there can be no science policy in a vacuum realistic economic, political and cultural. I have become convinced that in order to be feasible, a science policy (and more scientific-technical reason) must enroll in a comprehensive national project development.

Nevertheless, science continues to be something that the country can consider itself proud: according to the journal Nature is one of the 19 countries that lead projects and their budgets increased the area in 2006, and remains a leader regional, backed by scientific tradition.

Its current capacity is relevant to biomedicine , the nanotechnology , the nuclear energy , agricultural sciences, the development of satellites , biotechnology and information technology.

Colonial period

This period has virtually any scientific activity. Only publications can be identified and comments provided by travelers, missionaries and chroniclers natural sciences and ethnography, some collective concern for the spread of education and an early scientific environment in the early nineteenth century that disappear with political absolutism and the English invasions .
Early scientific

The first cultural and scientific events in the present Argentine territory were made ​​by religious orders, especially the Jesuits , who in the seventeenth century founded the first university in Córdoba , dictating education in art, theology and, at the end of century XVIII , jurisprudence. Also founded in Cordoba in 1687, the College of Monserrat . In his exploratory expeditions conducted evangelizing zeal of geographical importance during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and made ​​the first ethnographic and the first dictionaries and grammars of languages ​​araucana , Guarani and Toba .


They were also the builders of the first printing press worked in the country, which was run by natives living in their reductions . The first book printed in it dates from 1700 . Of them was also the second printing, which worked in that Monserrat College, with 1766 printed. It stopped working in 1781 due to the expulsion of the order, but reappeared in Buenos Aires the following year as the Royal Printing Foundling and was for 30 years the only one that worked regularly in the country. Few were scientifically relevant work printed by the Jesuits. Some of them were calendars and astronomical tables Buenaventura Suárez father who made ​​the first astronomical observations in 1706, publishing in 1744 his work Lunario a Century.

Thanks to the work of the Spanish mathematician Julio Rey Pastor , been in the country since 1921, who managed the creation of institutes, journals and associations, greatly advanced mathematical studies.

In 1936 born the Argentina Mathematical Union which publishes its own magazine.

From 1940 the advancement of mathematics was notorious, especially the scientific level attained by modern academic production time. Were highlighted at the University of Buenos Aires continue the work of Rey Pastor, as John Blaquiers, Menza and Florencio Francisco Jaime The latter engine of mathematics in high school.

He joined the faculty of the National Institute Faculty of the National University of Cuyo, Manuel Balanzat and Mischa Cotlar taught at the Universities of La Plata and Cuyo.

In Rosario was established in 1938 the Institute of Mathematics of the University of Litoral which was directed by Italian Beppo Levi and edited its periodical publications and teaching: Notae Mathematicae.
He created several Institutes of Mathematics at various universities, one of the most important is to mathematics, astronomy and physics at the University of Córdoba, established in 1956 by Enrique Gaviola .

In 1953 , due to the increase of students, the School of Physical and Natural Sciences of the UBA unfolded in Engineering and other Natural Sciences. Among other publications published four series of his scientific contributions, beginning in 1958 their math courses and seminars.

Under the auspices of Unesco established in 1959 UBA, Mathematics Regional Center for Latin America, according to plans submitted last year by the Argentine government.

The "Generation of 1961" was formed by a number of mathematicians who brought relevance to mathematics to occupy a high place in the academic world.

In 1961 he settled in the Computation Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the UBA's first computer country, Ferranti Mercury named Clementine . It was brought from England by its director, Manuel Sadosky , giving a boost to the analytical methods of calculation.

Physics and Astronomy.

Besides the already mentioned Institute of Physics of La Plata, in 1925 was created in Tucumán the Institute of Physics of the University of Tucumán.

During the first government of Peron announced the launch of huemul project in order to produce nuclear fusion technology. In charge of the project was the Austrian Ronald Richter . In 1951 Richter publicly announced huemul project success, but provided no evidence. As a result, in 1952 Perón appointed a scientific team to investigate Richter's activities revealed that the project was a fraud. The project was then transferred to the Bariloche Atomic Center dependent National Atomic Energy Commission , CNEA, (established in 1950) and the Institute of Physics of the National University of Cuyo which later was designated by the name of Instituto Balseiro . CNEA still develops serious research work published in special series.

One of the most important physicists and astronomers from Argentina, recognized worldwide, was Enrique Gaviola . He completed his training as a physicist and mathematician in Germany, where he arrived in 1922 and studied by scientists most exalted of the time, including Max Planck , Max Born and Albert Einstein , which he considered his colleague and friend. When received in 1926 in Berlin, Einstein asks Gaviola to support your request for a Rockefeller scholarship to go to work in Baltimore where the scholarship will just be denied on the grounds that it was granted to South America despite obtained the highest score among applicants. Outraged Einstein sent a letter which would bring the International Education Board grant for the first time a fellowship to a scientist in the southern hemisphere. Gaviola then moved to America where he worked with Robert Wood, the greatest experimental physicist at that time. He worked at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institute of Washington in the draft with a particle accelerator which was obtained potential five million volts. Among his publications are out experimental work on atomic emission stimulated, history of what is now known as laser .

Upon returning to Argentina in 1929 began a sermon by the scientific development of the country and held important positions, such as Director of the Astronomical Observatory of Cordoba and is a professor at the Universities of Buenos Aires and La Plata. As already mentioned, thanks to Gaviola many European scientists were rescued from the threat of Nazism, including Austrian theoretical physicist Guido Beck in 1943, who became one of the key figures of theoretical physics in Argentina and then in Brazil. Also prompted the creation of the Physical Society Argentina (first Latin American scientific society in the area of the discipline) to preside, and the Institute of Mathematics, Astronomy and Physics, University of Córdoba, established in 1956 to support the activities of observation. Led by Gaviola (between 1940 and 1947 and from 1956 to 1957) of Córdoba Observatory became a scientific center of the first order, with the design and construction of Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Observatory, opened in 1942.

In 1935 he traveled to America to work in the Mount Wilson Observatory in California, creating here a novel method for coating the surface of the mirrors of large telescopes which reduced time, effort and money to a third of the values ​​of time. This method was used in the preparation of mirror diameter 5 meter Palomar . In 1942, with his colleague Ricardo Platzcek stellar spectrograph designed the world's first built entirely with mirrors. Birkhoff, Dean of the Faculty of Science at Harvard University, called it "the real declaration of independence Argentina". He also brought the issue of waterfalls cosmic rays . In his later years his concern turned to science policy, with special emphasis on astronomy and nuclear energy.

The Observatory of La Plata was separated in 1920 from the Faculty of Science Fisicomatemáticas and became an establishment for research and training of astronomers. The physical engineer and PhD in astronomy Carlos Varsavsky was the founder and first director of the Argentine Institute of Radio Astronomy , opened in 1964, and president of the Physics Argentina. Participated in the construction of the largest radio telescope in the southern hemisphere, in Villa Elisa (Buenos Aires) . His doctoral thesis on atomic transitions of astrophysical interest, was for years a reference work. His theory on the abundance of molecular hydrogen in interstellar clouds has been verified by modern methods of observation.


The development of chemical studies was on the rise, especially in their applications in biology, medicine and industry. Among the government institutions was founded in 1929, the Institute of Scientific and Technological Research in the Faculty of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry of Santa Fe, and in 1936 the microchemical Research Institute of Rosario.
Luis Federico Leloir , physician and biochemist, he would receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1970 for his research focused on the nucleotide sugar, and the role they play in the production of carbohydrates , worked from 1945 at the Institute led by Bernardo A. Houssay , precedent Biochemical Research Institute Campomar Foundation , which Leloir would direct for 40 years since its inception in 1947 at the hands of the entrepreneur and patron Jaime Campomar .

Leloir successfully performed experiments which were revealed chemical routes for the synthesis of sugars in yeast. Prior to his research, it was believed that in order to study a cell could not disaggregate the body that housed. However, their work showed that this theory Pasteur was false.

He was an important research center discovered why the kidney promotes hypertension when sick and could also isolate the nucleotide-sugar substance and thereby understand the process of storage of carbohydrates and their conversion into energy reserves.

In early 1948 , the team identified Leloir carnucleótidos sugars, compounds that play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, which made ​​the Institute a world-renowned center. Immediately after, Leloir received the Award of the Scientific Society Argentina, one of many who received both at home and abroad.

Although by the end of 1957 Leloir was tempted to emigrate to the United States chose to stay and continue working in the country. Given its importance, the National Institute of Health in the United States (NIH) and the Rockefeller Foundation decided to subsidize the research led by Leloir.

The following year signed an agreement with the Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires , which was created by the Institute for Biochemical Research, Faculty of Natural Sciences Professor naming. In this center researchers and scholars came from the United States, Japan , England and France, among other countries.

By then Leloir was conducting their laboratory work in conjunction with teaching as a visiting professor at the Faculty of Natural Sciences, interrupted task only to complete his studies at Cambridge and the Enzyme Research Laboratory U.S.

Your research will beat economic difficulties faced by the Institute and was able to study the internal process by which the liver receives glucose and produce glycogen , the material of the body's energy reserves, and with Mauricio Muñoz managed oxidize fatty acids extracts liver cells.
Continuing with chemicals, is also to highlight the work of Venancio Deulofeu , doctor of chemical is in the Faculty of Exact, Physical and Natural Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1924. He specialized at the University of Munich, Germany, where he worked under the direction of Professor Heinrich Wieland , Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1927, and then, in 1941, in chemistry laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Saint Louis, in the United States. In 1931 he joined the Institute of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UBA as Teaching Assistant in the Department of Biological Chemistry.

In 1923 developed, with Dr. Alfredo Sordelli , a method of preparing insulin. Later he helped lead a successful new type of long-acting insulin.

Between 1948 and 1972 he published about 150 articles in the most prestigious national and international. His contribution to science in the area of ​​chemistry was multiple, original and international importance.

The Meteorology, Geophysics and Geography.
Meteorological studies gain momentum with the creation in 1935 of the Bureau of Meteorology, Geophysics and Hydrology and the organization at UBA doctorate in meteorology (1953).

It creates the Central Observatory (Observatorio de Buenos Aires) for sismométrico service in 1927 and Pilar Observatory (Córdoba) in 1904 for service geomagnetic. Also in 1959 he founded the private institution Argentina Association of Geophysical and geodesies.

The Argentine Geographic Institute is replaced by the Geographical Survey Argentina Society in 1922 and the Academy of Geography Argentina.

In the field of geography should highlight the Antarctic expeditions and the creation of the Argentine Antarctic Institute in 1956 and the Military Geographic Institute embodying the fundamental geodetic and topographic survey of the entire territory. By 1936 the national law institute conducts measuring a meridian arc throughout the country, being the chairman of the commission to carry out the director of the Observatory of La Plata, Felix Aguilar.

Biology and Medicine.

Physiology was one of the most effective medical science and development was in the country, and this was largely thanks to Bernardo Houssay , who received in 1947 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine . He graduated at age 17 pharmacist and doctor at 23, two years after starting teaching at the University of Buenos Aires.

Founded in 1919 the Institute of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires and directed it until 1943, when he was expelled from the faculty for adopting a pro-American stance too firm during the period in which Argentina was related with Nazi Germany. In private, Houssay created the Institute of Experimental Biology and Medicine, who led for a time he and another prestigious physiologist: Eduardo Braun Menendez , who in turn took the initiative to create the American Physiological Act , written in several languages ​​for publishing American Physiological work. From the Institute Houssay and his companions made ​​over a thousand jobs in endocrinology , nutrition , pharmacology , experimental pathology, adrenal glands , pancreas , hypertension , diabetes and other areas of physiology. The Institute would become a global center of excellence in the area of ​​scientific research.
In 1945, he published a treatise on human physiology known as The Physiology of Houssay, which would be translated into all major languages. With the publication of this treaty was that Houssay received international recognition with the 1947 Nobel Prize for his work on the influence of the anterior lobe of the pituitary in the distribution of glucose in the body, which is important for the development of the diabetes . When Houssay received the Nobel Prize, the press censored Argentina instead of being happy for being the first Latin American to received this award complained, saying that the award was contrary to the policy implications Peron ideas. Houssay replied that they could not confuse the little things (Peron) with large (the Nobel Prize).

Taught courses in institutions in the world and received decorations from the governments of France , Belgium and Chile . Through his work came the CONICET , which was its first president.

Continuing advances in this period in the area of ​​biology, it should be mentioned that besides the private institute founded by Houssay, created the Institute of Medical Research in Córdoba in 1947 and a similar one in Rosario in 1950. And among the most notable names of this period should be mentioned that of Salvador Mazza . In 1910 he graduated as a medical doctor, about the same time that by Rodolfo Kraus developed a vaccine anti-typhoid in a single application. In 1916 , during the First World War , the Argentine army commissioned a study of infectious diseases in Germany and Austria-Hungary , at which time he met his colleague Carlos Chagas , who had recently discovered microbial agent of American trypanosomiasis .

In 1925 he was appointed director of the laboratory and the museum of the Institute of Clinical Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, UBA. In that year and stayed invited Charles Nicolle who was interested in the endemic diseases that existed in northern Argentina. Nicolle inadequately warned they faced such conditions in those regions and helped Mazza in his intention to found an institute for research and diagnosis of endemic American. In 1926 the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires at the request of Dr. José Arce established the Mission Regional Pathology Studies Argentina (MEPRA), known colloquially as Mazza Mazza mission was its director. The MEPRA, headquartered in Jujuy , worked in the famous "E.600" mobile hospital laboratory and installed in a railway train. Thus such an institution could move by railroad network even to Bolivia Argentina and Chile.
In 1926 Mazza founded the Scientific Society of Jujuy and made ​​the first diagnosis of American trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis American tegumentary Argentina. Wherever it finds it, the MEPRA spread news and discoveries pertaining to the cure or prophylaxis of diseases between physicians and rural populations. Mazza's main task at this point was the attack vector of American trypanosomiasis, the insect popularly called kissing bug . Therefore alerted authorities that one of the main factors for the expansion or existence of trypanosomiasis and similar conditions was in the precarious economic conditions, educational and hygienic rural and urban populations of northern Argentina.

In 1942 he contacted the Scot Alexander Fleming in order to organize the production of penicillin in Argentina and a year later won with his team the first such production Argentina antibiotic . But the then government ignored the findings and efforts retaceó Salvador Mazza and all financial support, although the foreign production of penicillin was not available because it was being used to meet the needs of World War II .

He devoted part of its efforts to combat American trypanosomiasis in which he studied in situ, therefore this condition is also called Chagas-Mazza . Dacryoadenitis also studied why the acute phase of this disease is called Mazza-Benitez sign.

He died of cardiac syncope , and apparently due to trypanosomiasis in heart-chronic form while in Monterrey , Mexico .

Enrique Finochietto (1881-1948) was an Argentine doctor who stood out as a teacher, researcher, and inventor of a number of techniques, devices and surgical instruments: conceived and developed instruments and apparatus for surgical use spread worldwide . He invented the frontolux , a system inspired by the lamps of miners, adhered to the front of the surgeon, can illuminate the operative field, the "push ligatures" to stop the bleeding , the needle holder in various sizes and formats; double gripper used for hemostasis and as grommets, the surgical aspirator to clean the blood from the operative field, the "shell Finochietto", to open wounds, the cannula for transfusion, the mobile surgical table, pedal-driven electric motor-driven, you to place the patient in any position for easy operation, the bank for surgeons to operate sitting, and the separator intercostal chest zipper for operations, known universally as "separator Finochietto".

Other prominent doctors were embryologist Miguel Fernandez and Jacob Christofredo neurobiologist.

In 1958 he founded a Society of Plant Physiology Argentina a year later Argentina held the First Meeting of Soil Science, and in 1960 he created a center of marine biology studies at the Institute of Mar del Plata. They gathered at the National Institute of Agricultural Technology , INTA, created in 1956, which generates information and technologies applied to processes and products which are then transferred to producers.

Natural Sciences.

Ameghino's successor was Angel Gallardo who got the Museum of Buenos Aires had a proper installation in 1923.

The Museo de La Plata in 1919 was transformed into the Institute of Museum and School of Natural Sciences, extending its scientific action and its publications and the Ethnographic Museum featured two renowned directors as were Felix Outes and archaeologist Francisco Aparicio. Cities such as Paraná, Mendoza, Cordoba, Santa Fe also created similar institutions.

Originally born Private Argentina Society of Botany (1945), the Ornithological Society of Silver (1916), Argentina Entomological Society (1925), Association of Artropodología Argentina (1944), Argentina Geological Society (1945), the Palaeontological Association Argentina (1956) Argentina Society of Anthropology (1935).

In this period highlighted three botanists:

The Italian mycologist Charles Spegazzini who arrived in the country in 1879 that did a great job in his field and in his will he donated his house, collections and books for the museum building that was given his name.

    The botanist Christopher Mary Hicken , surveyor received at the Faculty of Natural Sciences, UBA. His teacher was the naturalist Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg , who gave the description of a new species of Hippeastrum Hippeastrum holmbergii in 1903 , then focused his research on the Polypodiaceae (1906-1910) and other South American botanical species of interest.

    Installed in a small town party General San Martin (Buenos Aires) , one herbal and particular library called Darwinion in 1911, which became a renowned botanical center, a specialized magazine, Darwinian , the flagship publication of Botany Argentina . Published more than 70 papers over his career, among which evolutionists Holmberg and doctrines (1915) Botanical Studies (1922) and migration of ferns in the flora of Tucumán. According to his wish, Darwinion became an Institute of Botany, dedicated only to scientific research under the administration of the Academy of Sciences of Buenos Aires.

    Miguel Lillo : Born in Tucumán, was an autodidact who passionately dedicated scientific studies pertaining to nature. In 1905 he published "Wildlife Tucumana Birds" making known their discoveries of new species. In 1914 the National University of La Plata was awarded the title of Doctor Honoris Causa, after teaching chemistry and physics at the National College and the Normal School, the same year he taught at the National University of Tucumán. In 1918 he retired from the practice of teaching, but it kept the honorary position of director of the Natural History Museum of the University of Tucumán.

    In December 1930 , he donated all his property to the National University of Tucumán, these consisted of a large field, a considerable sum of money, his extensive library, his and her herbalist menagerie consists of more than 20,000 copies of 6,000 different species . With this donation was the Fundación Miguel Lillo in 1933 , thanks to another great biologist and paleontologist: Alfredo Osvaldo Reig .
    Lillo was a naturalist extremely shrewd and observant, deeply erudite and gifted with an extraordinary scientific vocation. Specializing in botany , was nevertheless good writer to pursue other branches of science, particularly chemistry and zoology. It is relevant to their contribution to the knowledge of the trees of Argentina and the botanical family of compounds. He was also in ornithology-discipline which also became an authority -, linguistics, classical literature, also studying indigenous languages.

Philosophy, Sociology and History.

A century earlier prevailed in this country thought positivist , but the decline in the forties by the work of two major philosophers:

    José Ingenieros. The evolution of ideas Argentina was a pioneer in understanding the historical development of Argentina as a nation. In 1903 the National Academy of Medicine Simulation rew
ards you for insanity. In 1909 he was elected President of the Medical Society appoints Argentina and Argentine Delegate International Scientific Congress in Buenos Aires. Complemented his scientific studies in European universities. His essays sociological, political critics and school do college-level education in Argentina . In addition to leading his bimonthly journal "Philosophy Seminar", mixes his passion for science with a pronounced social ethics. In its many activities demonstrates an ability and penetration notorious, being considered an intellectual weight in his time. In 1922 he proposed the formation of the Latin American Union, an organization of struggle against imperialism. Later moved away from socialism to approach the prospect anarchist , becoming one of its leaders in Argentina.

    Alejandro Korn : Graduated from doctor 1882 , with a thesis on madness and crime. In 1897 he was appointed director of the then Provincial Hospital for the Insane, Melchor Romero position in which he served until 1916. He served as director and vice president of the National University of La Plata in 1903. Thereafter was the Chair Professor of the History of Philosophy. In the UBA was Acting Chair Professor of Ethics and Philosophy. He played a principal role in the movement of university reform of 1918. He was elected by the students as the first dean of the Faculty of reformist Arts of Buenos Aires. In 1931 he joined the Socialist Party . His thinking initiated the revival of Latin American philosophy in the context of the movement of university reform . Korn directed his thoughts to the study of values ​​and of human freedom, standing among his works creative freedom (1922), philosophical reflection on freedom in order to promote maximum prominence of the common man and woman, and axiology (1930 ).

Other figures who stood out for their contribution to the birth of philosophy Argentina were Saul Taborda in educational research, Alberto Rouges with its deep philosophical writings, and the prestigious Francisco Romero .

There was also a transitional stage represented by the Frenchman Paul Groussac (1848-1929), who came to Argentina as a youth, and as director of the National Library between 1885 and 1925, released documents on the Rio de la Plata . Published important historical works, especially biographies.

In history, the most investigated field is that of the country's history, and its most important center the National Academy of History , opened in 1938. One of his most notable is the History of the Nation Argentina, directed by Ricardo Levene (1885-1959).

As for the history of science , the main reference was the engineer, mathematician and historian José Babini (1897, 1984), who managed to be considered as an independent discipline in the country. Despite his civil engineering degree preferred to focus on the teaching of mathematics, serving for over ten years as a lecturer at the Faculty of Industrial Chemistry of the Universidad Nacional del Litoral , institution where he was dean. He also taught at the Faculty of Education, located in Paraná, in the National College and Industrial School.

Along with Julio Rey Pastor founded in 1936 Argentina Mathematical Union (AMU) and the issue of its magazine, who was also from Argentina Physics Association. Convened by the Universidad del Litoral arrives in 1938 Italian science historian Aldo Mieli (1879-1950), founder in Italy of the International Academy of the History of Science. Mieli Babini and then joined to create in that year, through King Shepherd, the Institute of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Litoral (which ran until 1943 when she underwent the university) and edit a version of Argentina European journal Archeion (Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences). Despite the closure bequeathed Mieli specialized library had brought from Europe.

Babini Mieli and ensured that the history of science in Argentina should become an independent discipline. Babini published in 1949 History of science Argentina, the first book written on the subject. We happen a list of more than 50 books, including the completion of the extensive and detailed history of science begun by Aldo Mielli. Babini work together with King Shepherd and originated Mielli interest by publishing historical works about science.

In 1958 he was appointed director of Culture of the government of President Arturo Frondizi . In this year he was part of that CONICET and became the first chairman of the Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires (EUDEBA).

As for the study of philosophy of science and related in 1956 had their own center with the founding of River Plate Grouping Logic and Scientific Philosophy.

There were several Spanish philosophers who contributed to the development of its kind in the country: José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), the criminal Asúa Luis Jimenez , Manuel García Morente , who was a professor and scientist at the University of Tucumán, the pedagogue Lorenzo Luzuriaga , and medievalist Claudio Sanchez Albornoz


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