The beginning of the National Parks in Argentina begins the 6 of November of 1903, when the expert Francisco P. Moreno (1852-1919), with the idea to preserve samples of the great scenic and natural patrimony for the future generations, presents/displays a plan and donates to the National Government square a three area of leguas, located in proximities of the Lake Nahuel Huapi, so that they are conserved like national public park. In 1922 they extend the original perimeter donated by Colored person, creating the "National Park of the Sud", which as of year 1934 receives the name of "National Park Nahuel Huapi".
Thus Argentina became the third American country in creating federal reserves to preserve the natural patrimony. The National Park Calilegua is located in the Province of Jujuy, in the Department of Ledesma, Argentine Republic.
It was created in 1979 by National Decree (D.N.) , Nro. 001733/80, including an area of 76,306 have of non-uniform relief, that includes/understands a series of faults, cañadones and very steep mountainous cords, that descend mainly from the Mountainous area of Calilegua.
Its objective is to protect a representative sample of Forest of Montaña or Yunga. Also an important hydric river basin is preserved, which supplies of water to one of the agricultural zones, under irrigation, more productive of the Province of Jujuy, that in their great majority is earth pertaining to company LEDESMA S.A.A.I., the locality of General Liberator San Martín and other populations.
Of the Parks of the Argentine Northwest that protect the Yungas, it is visited and known by his easy access.
The about 4,000 summits of mts. of height they offer vertical cliffs of hundreds of meters which together with a dense selvática vegetation that covers valleys and faldeos, turns to the area in one of most attractive of the region. They excel by its beauty hills Beautiful, Yellow, High Nose, etc.
From numerous streams and rivers descend there, like the Great Valley and the Torment that end at the imposing river San Lorenzo.
All of them empty in the river San Francisco that, flowing towards the east will be united soon with Bermejo. Sometimes these rivers single have a small water thread being dry most of their valley. Times of rains they become great torrentosos rivers that drag trunks, falling apart trees and great stones.
Abundant rains of the region (near 1,800 mm per year) allow the development of a dense vegetation that covers all the landscape: the mountain forest or yunga.
This formation, one of richest in species of Argentina, is characterized to have in its slopes different types agreed vegetation from the different altitudes or heights. This way we will find until the 500 mts. of height the Basal Forest or Pedemontana Forest.
Between the 500 and the 1600 is the Montana Forest and over her, the 2500 the Montano Forest that arrives at mts. of altitude. Above they settle the Pastizales Andean that reaches summits of the mountainous areas. Favored by its inaccesibilidad, the wild fauna of the Park still maintains its wealth original. Yaguaretés, Tapires, Pecaríes subsist there, great rapaces selváticas and an enormous variety of exclusive birds of these atmospheres. In the neighboring pastizales to summits we found to the Taruca or Huemul of the North, species in extinction danger.
In all the valley of the River San Francisco a.c. was developed to the native culture of the same name between the 300 and 400 years; one was recolectores hunters.
At the time of the Spanish colony they were put in practical is this region in first term, the charge system, destined to the mining operation, and soon the system of property (great extensions granted by Real Favor) destined the young of cattle, equine and wool.
As of century XX the height of the sugar talents begins, turning great part of the pedemeontana forest fields of cultures. The donation of the earth that made the Company Ledesma S.A.C.I.F to the National State, made the creation possible of the National Park Calilegua.
From the Terminal of Omnibus of the city of General Liberator San Martín is daily made the route until the Great Valley locality, that passs by the National Park Calilegua.
Vista from Calilegua
The groups leave in the morning early and return to last hour of afternoon. From Buenos Aires by airplane to the Airport the Cadillal in Perico Jujuy, distant 70 kms. of Liberator.
Also from Buenos Aires it is possible to be gone in airplane to Jumps.
In micro from the Terminal Station in Retirement to Liberator, there are several Companies, Pan-American, the Quick one of the north, etc.
Way of Access
From the locality of General Liberator San Martín, the National Route Nº 34 is due to take towards the north.
Immediately to cross the bridge of the River San Lorenzo, to turn to the left on the provincial route Nº 83. After 8 km of route by this way of consolidated debris is the Stream Black Waters, thus entering the National Park Calilegua.
Distance to populated centers
Locality Distance to Liberator 10 km to Calilegua 15 km to San Francisco 20 km to Great Valley 70 km to San S. de Jujuy 130 km to Orán 150 km to Jump 170 km to Buenos Aires 1650 km.
The best time to visit the National Park Calilegua is between the months of April and November. In the access to the National Park Calilegua it will find the camping rustic Black Waters that count on service of furnaces and toilets with running water and proveeduría. The provincial route Nº 83 has a section of 23 km that passs
by the Protected Area, allowing to see the changes that occur in the vegetation as it is promoted. Footpaths peatonales and pricked of different length and degree from difficulty do to this very apt National Park so that the lovers of the nature make diverse long walks and strolls.
Intercultural Footpath Guaraní "Our Forest": Adjacent to the Camping Black Waters, it crosses the Pedemontana Forest in a section of 600 meters, through as, Guaraníes guides count their history and the most important characteristics of its culture. At the end of the same one, is the Tenta or Casa Guaraní.
Footpath The Horseshoe: Part to 100 meters of the Seccional de Black Aguas, on the right hand of the route. It crosses a section of Pedemontana forest. It presents/displays low difficulty. and specially it is recommended for scholastic groups and people of any age with different capacities.
Viewpoint of the River San Lorenzo: to 180 meters of the Seccional de Black Aguas on left hand of the Provincial Route Nº 83. A beautiful Vista of the valley of the river San Lorenzo can be observed. Footpath to the Lagunita: Part to 2 km of the Seccional de Black Aguas, by hand right of the route.
It crosses a beautiful section of transition between pedemontana and montana forest until a small lagoon. It has the alternative to return by the Black Water stream. The difficulty that presents/displays is average. Tataupá
Footpath: Part to 2.5 km of the Seccional de Black Aguas, the left hand of the route. It crosses the Pedemontana Forest and it is returned by the channel of the Negrito Stream. It presents/displays high difficulty. It is specially recommended to make it accompanied of Guides qualified by the Park (It asks for information in the seccional or Intendance of the Park)
Footpath of the Meeting: Part to 3 km of the Seccional de Black Aguas, on the right hand of the route. From a small viewpoint, the union of streams of black Waters and Awnings can be observed, returning by the Stream Black Waters to the seccional of Guardaparques. The difficulty that presents/displays is high.
Footpath The Pircas: It begins to 100 meters of the Pulled Seccional of the Beehives. Raising by the by hand left route, it crosses Montana Forest arriving at the Negrito Stream.
The return is made by the same way. Alta.y presents/displays difficulty is specially recommended to make it accompanied of Guides qualified by the Park. (It asks for information in the Seccional or Intendance of the Park) Bicisenda The Tapir: One begins in the same point that the Footpath the Meeting, and to 200 ms separates, by a footpath specially thought for the benefit of the lovers of the adventure cycling. It returns by the channel of the Aº Black Waters. PREVIOUS To HIS ENTRANCE To The BICISENDA, IT IS OBLIGATORY TO FILL A FORM OF REGISTRY IN The SECCIONAL OF GUARDAPARQUES. CICLOTURISMO: the park counts on a service of excursions guided in bicycle, that make different routes by footpaths from the park.
In order to contract the service, it comuníquese with Intendance of the Park. It is possible to make a passage of several days being begun in the National Park Calilegua to arrive at the Gorge of Humahuaca, After leaving the limits of the Park, is arrived by provincial route Nº 83, to the locality of San Francisco, from is continued there on foot or horse to Tilcara or Humahuaca, in the Gorge homónima. Also a cavalcade can be made from San Francisco to the town of Calilegua Stop located to 2700 Mts. of height, the difficulty degree is high and in some steps very high. For the horse route until the Calilegua Stop the approximate time is of 6 hours for the ascent and of 4,30 hours for the reduction, it is possible to be made on foot with an average of time between 8 to 10 hours. In order to make this crossed type of it will have to resort to especilizadas travel agencies. In San Francisco Cross can be contacted with Don Luis, connoisseur of the zone and to that horses for the passage can rent to him. Aspects Immersed in this warm climate, on Eastern slopes of the Mountain range of the $andes, it penetrates in Argentina a strip of the so particular forests that they receive own name: the Yungas.
The Park is located on the Eastern faldeo of the mountainous areas of Calilegua, standing out hills Yellow, Beautiful and Small table. From the 3000 meters of height numerous streams and rivers are born cañadones deep. The forest gradually releases the water of rains through the Zora Rivers, San Lorenzo, Of Means and others. In slopes, this forest extends from the foot of the hill, to 600 meters on the level of the sea, to the summits that surpass the 3000 meters of height. By the altitude difference there is a variety of types of vegetation that grow in communities.
In the Yungas we will find an enormous agreed diversity of species animals with the atmosphere diversity, altitudinales layers of the vegetation and floors.
Many of these species, specially the birds, make seasonal displacements from the high zones to the losses in winter, and the inverse one in summer.
This group of vertebrates is most numerous, with near 350 species registered for the Park. Many of them are exclusive of this vegetal formation, the Yungas, not finding them to it in no other natural atmosphere of Argentina.
The most representative species are the Poma Eagle, enormous rapaz in extinction danger, the great parrots like the Green Guacamayo, the one of Red Face and In front Orange, the Alisero Parrot (characteristic of the Forests of Alder), Mount Turkey hens like the one of Red Face, endemic of the region, and a multitude of Picaflores, small frugívoras, trepadoras and insectivorous birds.
Between the mammals we found the group of the herbívoros, represented by the Tapir, the Pecaríes Labiado and of Necklace, Brown the Red Corzuelas and, the Agouti and the Tapetí, a native rabbit. In the Pastizales of Height we found another native red deer, the Taruca or Huemul of the North that is in danger of extinction by the hunting of which it is object, since it very constitutes an appraised trophy.
The carnivores as much are in abundance those of great bearing as the Yaguareté (species in extinction danger) the Puma like those of medium size like the Great Ferret, the Cat Tiger and the Mount Fox.
Many species of mammals are of exclusively arborícolas habits like the Squirrels, that cross the trunks in search of fruits and seeds and the Monkey I fell, that moves in small groups by the glasses of the trees.
An atypical group of amphibians exists in this bioma: the one of the marsupiales frogs. These species place their eggs in bags or marsupios that are in their backs, within which takes place all the larvario development. Once completed this one they leave marsupio the small ranitas totally formed.
The fauna of invertebrates, very little studied, very is varied and rich being the most common forms the same ones than abound in the selváticas regions with Missions and the Amazon.
3250-4000 m Cóndor Picaflor Puneño Finch puneño 2400-3250 m Quiuia Puneña Andean Carpenter 1700-2400 m Yaguareté Mount Turkey hen Dark-brown Alisera Alisero 800-1700 m Maracana of golden neck Monkey I fell Puma 0 800 ms Brown Corzuela Toucan
In the Yungas the climatic conditions, like rain, humidity and temperature vary steeply with the altitude between relatively near points.
Thus the valleys and the low zones enjoy warm and less rainy a climate, although of less frequent frosts. In slopes, however, the temperature is something smaller but the precipitations are less abundant.
In the zones still more elevated one goes to a climate tempered humid with colds to invier to us in which the snowed ones are frequent. This particular circumstances to each other determine the existence of a series of strips or differentiated floors of affluent vegetation.
On the plains located on the foot of the mountainous areas and in low mountainous cords, one settles the Pedemontana Forest or Forest of Transition, call thus to be between the Forest properly the these and dry forests of the Chaco.
The dominant trees of this formation are the White Wood, the Wood Lance, the White Tipa, the Jacarandá, the Cebil Colorado, the Horco Cebil, the Lapachos among other species.
Since in these heights rains do not surpass 1000 mm, a dry station is defined that agrees with the winter, moment at which most of the trees it loses his foliage. The located Montanas Forests over the previous formation, occupy Eastern slopes forming impenetrable a wooded mass, habitually covered by clouds during the summer and principles of the autumn. Those clouds do of the this most humid formation of all, with rains of up to 1,800 mm annual.
These characteristics determine a humid and shady inner atmosphere where a multitude of lianas, enredaderas and epífitas connect and vegetate on the trunks and branches of the trees, covering them almost completely. Here the trees of perennial leaves predominate and its size is much greater than in the Pedemontana Forest, arriving until the 30 meters of height.
They form this group of vegetal giants the Laurel of the Skirt, whose trunk arrives at the 2.50 meters of diameter, the Horco Molle or Muddy Palo, the Creole Walnut, of eatable nuts, and numerous Mirtáceas (the family of the Arrayanes and Eucaliptus) like Mato, Guil, Horco-Mato, Alpa-Mato, etc. that they define, when they appear in abundance, a particular formation called Forest of Mirtáceas. As we ascend by slopes, we left the forest with trees of perennial foliage, for volvermos to find with those of leaf expires that they integrate the call Montano Forest.
This formation must support to invier cold and dry and little rains to us (hardly 800 mm). Here three types are different from forest: those of Pine of the Hill, those of Alder and the Queñoa.
The Pine of the Hill is the only conifer of the Argentine Northwest. Aliso, that arrives until Mexico is located in pronounced slopes. The Queñoa is a small tree of twisted trunk that can be until the 3000 mts. of height on paredones rocky, reaching a height of up to 6 mts.
Over the Montanos Forests we found the Montanos Meadows formed in its totality by gramíneas and other herbaceous ones that bloom during the times of rain granting to him to the landscape a matchless beauty. 3250-4000 m Iros-Leji'a-Yareta Andean Pastizal 2400-3250 Festuca hieronymi-Deyeuxia sp.-Agrostis sp. Montana prairie1700-2400m Queñoa-Aliso of the Hill-pine of the hill-cane Montano Forest 800-1700 m Laurel-Cedro-Horco Cebil-Tipa Montana Forest 0-800 Tala- Tabaquillo-Yuchan Pedemontanada Forest
The ample altitudinal gradient of the Park determines a vast microclimate range, based on the height. With temperatures averages of 17ºC, invier to us they are dry and temperings in the low zones, habitually making snow-white in summits of hills between the months of June and September.
The summers are warm, arriving at maximum temperatures from 40ºC. The precipitations that varián also with the height, go from 800 mm in the lowest zones of the Park, to 2000 mm in the mountain forests; concentrating between the months of November and April.
The autumn is characterized by the fogs that cover the mountainous areas totally. The closed plot of the vegetation intercepts the fog, doing it to precipitate and contributing extra water for the vegetation. This type of precipitation denominates "horizontal rain". To see Map of the Tourist Circuit of the Yungas INFORMATION BUREAU National park Calilegua street San Lorenzo s/n 4514 Calilegua C.P. Jujuy Argentina Tel-Fax 54-3886-422046